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CBR response

Chemical, Biological and Radiological attacks have the potential to cause significant harm or damage & disruption to infrastructure. CBR attacks can be difficult to conduct, often requiring expertise and resources.

Attacks can involve the use of corrosive or flammable chemicals, toxic materials or radioactive sources. The damage and injury caused by a CBR attack depends on the material and the manner in which it is deployed.


CBR recognition, First indicators may include:

  • individuals showing unexplained signs of skin, eye or airway irritation, nausea, vomiting, twitching, sweating, disorientation, breathing difficulties

  • the presence of hazardous or unusual material/equipment

  • unexplained vapour, mist clouds, powder, liquids or oily drops withered plant life or vegetation

  • distressed birds or animals

  • odd smells or taste


Potential dispersion and exposure methods include:

  • spraying (liquids or powders)

  • gas release (e.g gas cylinders)

  • contamination (e.g food or drink)

  • materials left in situ

Other exposure methods may involve an explosive device.


Remove Remove Remove

If you think someone has been exposed to a hazardous substance use caution and keep a safe distance to avoid exposure yourself. If you have been affected, the instructions in Remove, Remove, Remove may be followed:


REMOVE THEMSELVES from the immediate area to avoid further exposure to the substance. Fresh air is important.

  • if skin is itchy or painful find a water source

  • REPORT… to the emergency services

REMOVE OUTER CLOTHING if affected by the substance

  • try to avoid pulling clothing over the head if possible

  • do not smoke, eat or drink

  • do not pull off clothing stuck to the skin

REMOVE THE SUBSTANCE from skin using a dry absorbent material to either soak it up or brush it off

  • RINSE continually with water if the skin is itchy or painful


When should you use the REMOVE advice?

  • if you think you have been deliberately or accidently exposed to a hazardous substance

  • if you think you have been attacked with a corrosive or acidic substance


For further advice download the Threat Recognition Guide

Documents title

REMOVE advice